Moriarty, P. … [et al.] (2011). Ladders for assessing and costing water service delivery. (WASHCost working paper; no. 2). 2nd ed. The Hague, The Netherlands, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. iv, 19 p. : 5 fig., 5 tab. 14 ref.
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This working paper introduces the concept of service levels, grouped as sequential rungs on a ladder, as a way of differentiating between broad and recognisable types (levels) of service. By developing this metaphor, a structure is provided to analyse the data being collected in different countries and settings, not just in terms of the technologies being used, but in terms of the domestic water services being received. The paper introduces water service levels and explains how these can be used as integral components of an analytical tool for applied research or benchmarking. It is best read together with Working Paper 3: Assessing sanitation service levels. Both papers are aimed at providing a framework for data analysis of life-cycle costs. This second edition reflects the experiences of applying this methodology in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique and India (Andhra Pradesh).